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1、What are the normal diseases in the general surgery?

They are appendicitis ,calculus of gallbladder , inguimal hernia ,simple goiter etc.

2、How many symptoms and signs are appeared in the acute appendicitis?

Fever , symptom of the alimentary camal :(nausea ,vomiting ,diarrhea ,hellyace )typical signs:ambulant pain in the right below belly and peritoneum stimulating :(belly muscle tension ,pressing ache ,rebounding pain .

3、What are (normal )symptoms and signs for the acute cholangitis ?

After having the high-fat food ,the right upper belly will feel pain and with sporadic pain , the right shoulder and back will feel pain.

The symptoms of the alimentary canal : the right upper belly feels pain , the muscle is strain ,the Murphy shows positive .the syndrome : acute necrotic cholangitis ,bile peritonitis ,cholangitis and pancreatitis .

4、What’s the clinic signs of acute pancreatitis ?

bellyache, nausea ,vomiting ,the symptoms of peritonitis :abdominal distension ,fever ,shock ,and some patients will have the signs of Grey-Tummer or Gullen .hand and feet fwitch (hypocalcemla)

5.What’s the urgent nursing work (measures) for the poatients with the injury of closed belly , such as rupture of spleed ?

A. the nursing work during the period of observation :

a. rest in bed absolutely ,avoid lifting jandom,

b. observe and test the life symptom and the belly

c. fasting, don’t use pain-killer, cyster is forbidden

d. to use antiauxin

B. Nursing work before operation

a. psychology( or mentality of operation, and get the cooperation of the patients

b. try to prepare the operation quickly , if the patient is shock, it need to make blood transfusion and infusion , give vasoconstrictor and cardiofonic etc.

c. set the grashic tube and the catheter in place, shaving hair of operation area, skin-test

C. Post-operation nursing work (care)?

a. according to different operation measures and anaesthesia category nursing

b. lying position: awaking after the general anaesthesia, or 6 hours after the epidural anaesthesia, semi-sitting and semi-lying. In this way, it is good for patient breathing smoothly and drainage it can decrease the pain and promote the cicatrisation.

c. Observing the life signs, central venous pressure

d. Food ,post-operation food-forbidden, 2-3days later, after the anus exhausting, to have the liquid, 5-6days later, to have the semi-liquid , it should take those digesting, high carbohyd rate and high protein diet. To eat a little every time but take frequently .

e. To encurage the patient to breathe deeply ,coughing, phlegm, to decree ase the lung syndrome, and after the patient get a little better, ask him to get out of his best for a walk .

f. Nursing care of the drainage tube to keep asepsis, properly fix the drainage tub from bopping, twisting , blocking, keep the tube smoothly, closely observe and register the chracter and volumn of the drainage tube.

6. What’s the main point of “T” tube nursing?

a. properly fixed, prevent it from twisting and pressing ,avoid it dropping to cause the bile peritonistis .

b. keep cleaning, operate in asepsis, prevent the converse infection.

c. Observe the bile’s character, colour and volumn in time,

d. Register the bile volumn in 24 hours, and the normal bile in 500ml-800ml/per day

e. To keep the “T” tube smoothly

f. The condition of drawing tube :to draw the tube 14-18 daye after the operation. And also has the following conditions:

(a)       the bile volumn decreased

(b)       there is no abdominal distension, icterus and fever after the clamped “T” tube,

(c)       the choledochogram shows smooth.

g. to protect the skin around the wound, change the dressing in time .

the food nursing work after the most part of stomach-cutting

food forbidden for 24-48 hours operation , if the intestime restore moving, and eliminate the gas in the abdomen , it need to clamp the gastric tube and test the water-drinking, observe it for 6 hour , if no abdominal distendion and pain happened, we can pull out the gastric tube, give him a little water , 4-5 spoon every time, one time at the interval of 1-2 hours, in the second day, give him half amout of liquid, ,50-80ml/ every time , in the third day, give him full amount of liquid, 100-150ml/every time, at the interval of 4-6 time per day , if no abdominal distension, pain and other ill effects happened when having his liquid, in the forth day, he should have the semi-liquid, especially take the washy porridge. 10-14 days later, he can have the soft food, pay closed at tention that he should take a little every time but frequently.

What is the pour syndrome ?

It is one of the syndromes after most part of the stomach-cutting. It appears that the upper belly will feel uncomfortable after having sweet liquid diet for 10-20 minutes, and there will be heart-throb, breathe hard, vapidity, perspiring, dizzy, nausea vomiting and even collapse. It is always accompanying the intestine resounding and diarrhea. When the symptom happens, it need to give him slight sweet diet and then he’ll get better, try to take food a little every time but frequently. After the meal, put him lay flat for several minutes to prevent it happening once more.


蒸汽消毒 steam disinfection

紫外线消毒disinfection by ultraviolet light

灭菌 sterilization   化学灭菌 chemical sterilization  

间接灭菌 fractional sterilization

器械灭菌 mechanical sterilization

测量生命体征 Measurement of vital signs

量口腔(直肠\腋下)体温 taking oral(rectal\axillary) temperature

测量桡动脉脉搏 taking radial pulse    

呼吸记数 counting respirations

量血压 measuring(taking) blood pressure  

手术前准备 Pre-operation preparation

备皮 shaving the patient’s skin

备皮 skin preparation       麻醉 anesthesia

手术刀 scalpel     剪子 scissors

肠线 ribbon gut        止血带 tourniquet      

紫外线灯ultraviolet lamp    血管夹 vessel clamp         氧气桶 oxygen tank       输氧机 oxygen outlet      呼吸机ventilator       灭菌器 sterilizer

心电图机 electrocardiograph      症状symptom

体征signs  实施手术 to perform an operation  包扎伤口 to dress a wound  换药 to change dressing  切口 incision  切除 excision  缝合suture  缝线 surgical stitching  拆线 to take out the stitches  麻醉 anesthesia  全身麻醉 general anesthesia  局部麻醉 local anesthesia   再植replantation  移植transplantation  普鲁卡因 procaine  福尔马林formalin  来苏尔lysol   酒精 alcohol   碘酊 iodine tincture  

Basic knowledge of Nursing Care

1. What are the vital signs?

Vital signs are measured to detect any changes in normal body functions. They include pulse, blood pressure, Pressure, temperature and respiration.

2. What is a nurse’s daily work?

-Start working at 8:00 am. Medical meeting and take over shift.

-Collect specimen

-Morning cares.

-Observe patient in vital sign and other condition.

-Go round the ward with doctor.

-Carry out doctor’s orders. Apply injection and medication treat patients .

-Complete nursing report

-First and treatment to patients.

3. What is complications?

It refers to an unfortunate secondary change that sometimes develops in the course of a disease.

4. What is anemia?

(a) Anemia signifies a decreased amount of hemoglobin in the blood , therefore,a decreased amount of oxygen reaching the tissues and organs of the body.

(b) People with anemia look pale and feel weak.

5. What is administration of medication?

a. Oral:to swallowed with water

b. Parenteral: any form of injection

c. Subcutaneous( hypodermic) :the medication is injected into the subcutaneous layer of skin.

d. Intramuscular: the medication is injected into the muscular tissue.

e. Intradermal: the medication is injected into the dermis.

f. Intravenous: the medication is injected into the vein.

g. Instillation: the administration of medication by instillation is through drops or pouring.

h. Suppository: a cylindrical solid is inserted into the rectum or vagina.

i. Inhalation: drugs are dispersed into the air in a gas or vapor from.

6. What causes infection?

A infeetion is a disease state that results from the invasion and growth of microorganisms in the body.

7. What is disinfection?

It is the process in which pathogenic microorganisms are destroyed . Disinfection does mot destroy spores.

8. What is sterilization?

a. Sterilization procedures destroy all nonpathogens, pathogens and spores.

b. Radiation ,liquid chemicals and a chemical gas may be used for sterilizing .

9. What are the complications of bed rest?

Bed rest and the lack of exercise can lead to serious complications, such as decubitus ulcers, constipation, blood clots, urinary tract infections and pneumonia, etc.

10. What is CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation)?

CPR must be started as soon as cardiac arrest occurs. The objective of CPR is to provide oxygen to the brain, heart, kidneys and other organs until more advanced emergency measures can be carried out by trained personnel. CPR involves three basic parts: airway, breathing and circulation.

11. What is the most common disorder of the endocrine system?

a. The most common disorder of the endocrine system is diabetes mellitus. In this disorder the body is unable to use sugar properly.

b. signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus include increased urine production, increased thirst, hunger and weight loss.

c. Diabetes mellitus is treated with exercise ,diet and insulin therapy.

12. What is hypertension?

a. Hypertension is a condition in which the blood pressure is abnormally high.

b. Narrowed blood vessels are a common cause of hypertension. Furtherly, kidney disorders, head injuries, certain complications of pregnancy and tumors of the adrenal gland can cause high blood pressure.

c. Complications of hypertension include stroke, heart attack, kidney failure and blindness.

13. When do you need to activate BLS?

When a patient’s breathing and heart action stops suddenly and without warning. In addition, when a patient’s breathing stops but his or her heart continues to pump blood for several minutes.

14. What is your nationality?

I am Chinese.

15. What is your job title? (What do you do in hospital?)

I am a staff nurse in the surgical department.